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American Bred; Oddysseys of the Mixed Blood Frontier Family

Belles of the Creek Nation (Index)

Belles of The Creek Nation is an innovative and modern perspective investigating the problematic linkages between preservation of cultural heritage, maintaining cultural diversity, defining and establishing cultural citizenship, and ancient tribal rite of passage. It is the first publication to address the notions of cultural diversity among Mixed Blood heritage, tribal culture and sacred rights of the people, all in one book. The relationships and heritage presented provides the basis of humanity’s rich cultural diversity among descendants of remnant Indian clans. While there is considerable literature dealing separately with cultural diversity, cultural heritage and tribal rights, this book distinctively presents contemporary relevance in focusing on the intersection between these concepts. Sewell presents the cultural diversity, heritage, citizenship and tribal rights; and establishes a fresh approach that will interest students, descendants and practitioners alike exposing a new and fresh perspective for future work and genealogical study in the Mixed blood Indian heritage of America. “Your blood will mix with ours; and will spread with ours, over this great island…The ultimate point of rest and happiness for (Indians and Americans ) is to let our settlements and theirs meet and blend together, to intermix, and become one people.” -Excerpted from a letter written by President Thomas Jefferson to United States Indian Agent to the Creek Nation, BCN Back MatterBenjamin Hawkins, to relay to Creek leaders, February 18 1803 “Scott Sewell has written the saga of our diverse heritage bringing to light the relationships and powerful influence of the Countrymen within the Native American life , sharing details of the sacred rituals passed down for generations. We are not a lost people but have been hidden in plain sight in our closed communities and clan marriages. There has been a great awakening and now Scott has brought our history out of the darkness and is shining the light on the heritage, lives and struggles of our people in Belles of The Creek Nation.” Marilyn Baggett Kobliaka, Redbone Descendant, of the Doyle & Hill Families, Author & Family Historian “Belles of the Creek Nation is a richly detailed narrative of the complex web of interrelated Native American Creek families. Both exciting to read and edifying in content, Sewell has brought to light a little explored area of history with a meticulous eye for detail and flowing writing style. A great addition to the library!” Lars Adams, Author and Independent Researcher “Christopher does a great job of blending introspective genealogy with objective history. I especially liked the last chapter. The tension between tribal leaders wanting to restrict membership (or even expel members) when slicing the pie of financial benefits from the Bureau of Indian Affairs, on the one hand, versus the avalanche of non-clan members seeking (or even demanding) Indian self-identity, on the other, is fascinating. I get the impression that if you ask three random tribal leaders what defines a “true Indian” you will get four conflicting opinions.” Frank W. Sweet, History of the U.S. Colorline.

Index
1870 census, 137
1880 census, 137, 179
1886 Roll of Self-Emigrants, 107
1910 census, 187
1918 military enlistment, 140
1920 census, 138, 188
2000 census, 190
A Partial List of TX Ranger Company and Unit Commanders’, 157
Those Who Remain, 142
A. D. Ellis, 198
A.J. Doyle. See Jackson Doyle
African, 13, 22, 23, 24, 124, 135, 145, 161, 222, 225
Ahbeka, 58
Alabama, 14, 64, 85, 91, 94, 98, 107, 114, 117, 119, 124, 127, 137, 146, 147, 148, 149, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 157, 159, 164, 165, 185, 191, 192, 195, 197, 207, 210, 211, 215, 216, 217, 219, 224, 226, 227, 228
Alabama Historical Quarterly, 159
Alex Cornell, 93
Alex Haley, 22
Alexander Fitzgerald, 152
Alexander Hill, 16, 91, 95, 129, 131, 132, 135, 149
Alice Callahan, 149, 164, 166, 172, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178
Alice Freeman, 183
Allen Hill, 133
Amanda Doyle, 16, 58, 60, 84, 91, 94, 95, 96, 97, 101, 104, 105, 106, 107, 127, 128, 130, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 156, 164, 165, 173, 179
Amanda Sybil Doyle. See Amanda Doyle
Amelia Conyers, 133
American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 140
American Revolution, 86, 87
Anderson, South Carolina, 99
ANDREW HAMMILL, 98
Andrew Jackson, 134
Andrew Ramsey, 193, 209, 210, 213, 217, 226
Angela Barrera, 222
Angie Debo, 202
Anthony Parades, 145, 212
Anthony Wayne, 89, 91
Apalachicola, 95, 139, 141, 185, 189, 190, 209, 210, 211, 213
Apalachicola River, 95, 139, 189
Apalachicola tribal town, 209
Archie Doyle, 154
Arkansas River, 159, 170
Asbury Manual Labor School, 99, 100
Asbury Missionary Institute, 96, 98, 130, 150, 173, 175
Atmore, Alabama, 124
Augusta, Georgia, 98
Bainbridge Georgia, 136
Baptist, 156
Barnett, 93, 150
Battle of Fallen Timbers, 90, 91
Battle of the Wilderness, 131, 136
Benjamin Hawkins, 5, 87, 88, 92, 93, 94, 117, 118
Benjamin Marshall, 107
Benjamin Mitchell, 125
Big Cypress, 208
Big Warrior, 93
Bird Clan, 18, 59, 60, 106
Bissie McIntosh., 32
blood quantum, 20, 21, 30, 177, 178, 206, 207
Blountstown Indian Community Conference, 209
Blountstown, Florida, 64, 146, 193, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 217, 224, 225
Bob Walton, 89, 94
Brewton Berry, 202
Brim, 86
Bristol, 139
Britain, 89, 92
Broken Arrow, 110, 126, 155
Brown, 139, 144, 219, 229
Brown v. Topeka, 219
Bruce, Florida, 145
Buck Bryant, 193, 224
Bulloch County, Georgia, 140
Bulloch Herald, 140
Bureau of Indian Affairs, 30, 127, 137, 196
C. Vann Woodward, 219
Cairo, Georgia, 191
Calhoun County, 139, 219
California, 83, 148, 183, 195, 218
Calusa, 186
Calvin Coolidge, 188
Calvin McGhee, 191
capitalism, 115
Captain Kenard’s Creek Squadron, 168
Carolinas, 26, 27, 124, 128, 139, 190, 223
Caroline Bennett, 133
Caroline Conyers, 133, 179
Catawba, 124, 144, 217
Catherine McMillan, 133
Cato Hill, 133
ceremonial grounds, 13, 18, 60, 62, 115, 185, 198, 210, 213, 218
Certificate of Degree of Indian Blood, 30
Chambers County, 94
Chattahoochee, 94, 95, 99
Cherokee, 16, 20, 23, 25, 27, 95, 96, 97, 101, 119, 121, 129, 130, 149, 167, 177, 196, 217
Cherokee Nation, 21, 95, 129
Cherokee paradox, 20
Cherokee Phoenix, 16, 95, 96, 97, 101, 129, 130, 149
Chickasaw, 20, 25, 27
chicken fights, 190
Chilly McIntosh, 122, 167
Choctaw, 20, 25, 27, 119, 150, 191, 192, 196, 217, 226
Christian Limbo, 93, 94
Christianity, 106, 115
Christie Farnham, 160
Christina Stopka, 157
Citizen-Indian, 140
Citizenship Act of 1924, 142
Civil War, 31, 120, 144, 147, 150, 157, 167, 169, 186, 199, 216, 219, 225
Clarence Hardridge, 188
Clarence Mabry, 224
Cleveland Conyers, 131, 137
Colorado, 148
Company K of the First Creek Regiment, 168
confederate, 95, 131, 133, 145, 167, 170
confederate congress, 95
Confederate Congress, 168
Confederated Tribes of the Grand Ronde, 204
Congress, 142, 165, 168, 170
Copeland, 143, 228
Corene Holt, 132
Corvia Jacobs, 221, 229
Cottondale, Florida, 140
Coweta, 93, 94, 98, 99, 107, 155, 170, 176
Crazy Snake, 120
Creek, 3, 5, 6, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 20, 25, 27, 30, 31, 32, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 102, 104, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 161, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191, 193, 195, 196, 198, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 217, 221, 224, 225, 226, 227
Creek Nation, 12, 13, 15, 17, 19, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 64, 83, 85, 86, 92, 97, 106, 107, 108, 114, 122, 126, 127, 128, 130, 135, 149, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 164, 165, 166, 170, 173, 180, 181, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 191, 195, 196, 208, 213, 226
Creek Nation East of the Mississippi., 191
Creek National Council, 110, 175, 185
Creek Nations Supreme Court, 170
Cufe, 62
Dale Scott, 148
Dallas Morning News, 211
Dan Townsend, 208
Daniel Minton, 133, 136
Daniel N. McIntosh, 167
Daniel Penton, 208
Daniel Webster, 159
Darlington District, 96, 129, 131, 133
David Grayson, 155
David Mitchell, 117
David Nogueras, 204, 205
David Wilkins, 205
Dawes Roll, 20, 173
Decatur County, 129, 131, 135, 136, 137, 202
Decatur County Historical Society, 131, 202
Decatur County, Ga. Past and Present 1823-1991, 131
Decatur County, Georgia, 137
Dees, 124
Dempsey Hill, 133
descendant roll, 20
disenrollment, 204
DNA, 21, 124
Doaksville, 169
Dominicker, 14, 26, 222
Dominickers, 208
Don Sharon, 224
Eastern Creek Indians, 149, 191
Eastern Creeks, 124, 137, 146, 185, 195, 217, 228
Eastern Shoshone, 206
Ebenezer H. Cummins, 119
Ekvn Hvtke, 198, 208, 213
Elias Boudinot, 95
Elijah Beaver, 155
Elizabeth Hawkins, 121
Elizabeth Mercer, 137
Emma Hill, 32, 136, 229
Emma Price (Adair), 166
endogamy, 137, 223
Escambia County, Florida, 148
Essie Hill, 197, 209, 210, 212
etvlwv, 57
Euchee, 208
Euchee Billie, 208
Eufaula Indian Territory, 156, 170, 208
Europeans, 13, 23, 26, 64, 88, 119
federal acknowledgment, 30
federal census, 31, 88, 92, 135, 187
federally recognized, 128, 142
Ferdinand Hill, 131, 136
First Creek Regiment, 168
First Creek Regiment of the Confederate Army, 167
First Indian Cavalry Brigade, 167
First Osage Battalion, 168
Flint River, 94
Florala Alabama, 127
Florida, 12, 14, 17, 18, 27, 28, 57, 61, 63, 64, 83, 85, 95, 96, 97, 104, 124, 127, 128, 129, 131, 133, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 142, 146, 147, 148, 149, 161, 176, 177, 178, 179, 185, 186, 190, 191, 192, 195, 196, 202, 207, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 215, 216,217, 219, 223, 225, 226, 228
Florida State Archives, 129
Florida State University, 212
Florida Tribe of Eastern Creek Indians, 191, 225
Florida’sGovernors Council of Indian Affairs, 210
Forbes Purchase, 190
Fort Benning, 107
Fort Mitchell, 16, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 128, 129, 130, 135, 149, 150, 164, 165, 173
Fort Wilkinson, 106
Frank G. Speck, 199, 202
Frank Sweet, 202
Fredonia, 94, 154
French and Indian War, 83
G.W. Stidham, 151, 165
Gadsden County, Florida, 213
Gene J. Crediford, 142
genealogy, 21, 22, 113, 131, 151, 154, 156, 191, 226
General Lee’s surrender, 168
George M. Troup, 120, 123
George Robert Wesley Hill, 16, 137, 179
George W Hill, 131, 133, 137
George W. Hill, 30, 164, 178, 188
George Washington, 89, 180
Georgia, 14, 17, 61, 62, 64, 85, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 107, 108, 110, 119, 120, 122, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 139, 140, 148, 149, 151, 164, 165, 178, 181, 191, 195, 202, 210, 211, 213, 215, 216, 219, 222, 226, 227, 228
Georgia Courier, 97, 130
Gibson, 124, 159
Grand Ridge, 133
Graves Creek Indian Church, 181
Grayson, 155, 180
Great Lakes War, 89
Green Corn Dance, 17, 56, 210, 213, 227, 229
Green Hill cemetery, 153
Grover Cleveland, 170
Hansford, 124
Hardridge, 188
Harmon Hill, 131, 137, 138, 140
Harrell International Institute, 174, 175
Hathcock, 124
Henry Clay, 87, 92, 159
Hillabee, 126
Hitchita, Oklahoma, 181
hog-killing, 190
Hollywood, California, 182, 183
Holmes County, Florida, 137
Hopkins, Texas, 151
House of Kings, 169
Hugh Oxendine, 189, 221
hybridization, 26, 27
Indian Advocate, 106
Indian Claims Commission, 124, 195, 226
Indian Country, 120, 203, 205
Indian countryman, 31, 66, 91, 94
Indian Journal, 170, 174
Indian removal, 16, 31, 85, 164
Indian Removal, 17, 24, 87, 122, 135, 174
Indian Territory, 85, 90, 115, 120, 127, 135, 150, 151, 155, 157, 161, 164, 166, 167, 169, 170, 173, 174, 178, 180, 185, 215
individual land holdings, 115
intermarriage, 12, 137, 147, 196
ISAAC SMITH, 98
Islands, 84, 106, 107, 178
Isparheche, 170
Jackson County, 129, 131, 133, 137, 140, 148, 179, 219
Jackson Doyle, 90, 104, 151, 157
Jacobs, 124, 139, 191, 222, 224
James Barbour, 114, 118, 126
James Callahan, 91, 94, 104, 149, 150, 164
James Carson, 111
James Hill, 95, 96, 97, 101, 104, 129, 130, 149, 150, 164, 173
James K Braswell, 132
James Manning, 146
James Oliver Callahan. See James Callahan
James Taylor Carson, 111
Jean Hill Chaudhuri, 63
Jeffrey Weiss, 211
Jim Crow, 14, 31, 63, 140, 144, 147, 177, 207, 216, 218, 219, 220
Jim Scott, 63, 221
John A Hill, 133
John Crowell, 93, 125, 126
John Halstead, 93
John Harrell, 175
John Jumper’s Seminole Battalion, 168
John Ward, 94
Johnathan H. Hill, 133
Joseph Hardage, 154
Joseph Islands, 94, 106, 107, 116
Josephine Callahan, 152, 166
Josiah Francis, 122, 127
Judy Bense, 212
Julie Minton, 32, 138
Kansas, 90
Cussetah, 58, 84, 87, 93, 104, 105, 106, 107, 149, 150, 164, 167
Kentucky, 87, 91, 159
Coweta, 58, 84, 87, 93, 106, 107, 111, 166, 167, 213
CowetaCoweta, 155
Kunfuskee, 55, 148, 198, 213, 214
Lake Okeechobee, 208
Law Menders, 109, 114, 126
legal prosecution, 200
Levy Grayson, 155
Liberty County, 138, 139, 144, 190, 222
Lizzie Grayson, 155
Lone Watie, 169
Louisiana, 26, 64, 94, 192, 197
Lower Creeks, 93, 164, 185
Lower Muskogee Creeks, 128
Lumbee, 14, 139, 140, 149, 190, 192, 195, 204, 217, 222, 223, 226

Mabel Lewis, 180
mainstream, 15, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 27, 30, 61, 66, 161, 195, 196, 198, 203, 206, 207, 211
Major Joseph Scales, 167
Maker of Medicine, 18, 210
Malinda Maynor Lowery, 140
Marcus Briggs-Cloud, 222
Marianna, 140
Marion County, Georgia, 100
Marriage Index, 97, 129
Martha Francis Minton, 136
Mary Barnett, 87, 106, 107, 152
Mary Brown, 144, 229
Mary Coody, 156
Mary Francis Johns, 209, 227
Mary Hardage, 154
Mathias Porter, 177, 228, 229
Matthew Livingston, 148
McDaniel, Oklahoma, 187
McIntosh, 84, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 148, 166, 167, 170, 178, 187, 193, 227
McKenzie College, 165
Meck Hill, 32, 137, 199
Mekko, 210, 212
Methodist, 98, 99, 156, 170, 173, 175, 176
Miccosukee, 57, 192, 196, 226
Michael Green, 110
Milledgeville, Georgia, 97, 99, 129, 130
Milledgeville, Georgia Newspaper Clippings (Southern Recorder), Volume II 1828-1832, 97, 129, 130
Millie Grayson, 155
miscegenation, 147
missionaries, 63, 84
mixed race, 26, 144
mixed-blood, 27, 87, 91, 140
Mobile, Alabama, 117, 148, 164
Moses F. J. Conyers, 137
Mount Zion, 145
MOWA Band of Choctaw, 191
mulatto, 63, 84, 216
Muscogee, 12, 13, 16, 57, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 83, 84, 85, 86, 90, 91, 94, 104, 112, 115, 127, 149, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 161, 164, 166, 171, 178, 179, 181, 184, 191, 196, 198, 211, 212, 213
Muscogee (Creek) Nation, 62, 198
Muscogee Doyle, 104, 153, 156
Muscogee Doyle Hardage Sutbury. See Muscogee Doyle
Muscogee Nation of Florida. See Florida Tribe of eastern Creek Indians
Muskogee, 58
Muskogee speaking, 58, 115
Muskogee, Oklahoma, 64, 103, 110, 115, 127, 128, 153, 156, 169, 174, 176, 188, 191, 210
NAACP, 206
Nacogdoches, Texas, 160
Nancy Doyle, 16, 31, 32, 129, 164, 178
Nancy Melvina Summers, 133
National Public Radio, 204
Native American, 13, 14, 16, 17, 20, 21, 23, 25, 26, 29, 30, 31, 63, 66, 89, 90, 111, 124, 133, 173, 175, 176, 190, 191, 202, 203, 205, 206, 207
Negro children of Nimrod Doyle, 157
Nelson B. Rivers III, 206
Nene Hvtke, 118, 213, 215
New Echota, 95
New York Times, 22
Niles Weekly Register, 109, 117
Nimrod Doyle, 16, 31, 66, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 101, 106, 107, 116, 149, 150, 157, 159, 160, 164, 165, 170, 172, 174, 179
nineteenth century, 26, 84, 86, 88, 107, 128, 137, 150, 167, 218
Noah Hill, 140, 141, 143, 191, 221, 228
Norma Bible, 30, 183
North Carolina, 27, 139, 177, 192
North Fork Church, 106
obituary, 152
Ocmulgee, 93, 116, 117, 125
Okfuskee, 154
Oklahoma, 17, 18, 20, 30, 57, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 83, 95, 99, 115, 123, 129, 148, 150, 164, 169, 177, 180, 181, 183, 187, 188, 195, 198, 204, 213, 224, 226
Oklahoma statehood, 150, 188
Okmulgee, Oklahoma, 166, 169, 170, 174, 180
One Flew over the Cuckoo’s Nest, 183
Osceola, 122, 124
Osoche Town, Creek Nation, 186
Our Red Brother’, 175
Owen J. Davis, 150
Oxendine, 124, 139, 140, 189, 191, 221, 224, 225, 228, 229
P. H. Sudberry, 154
Paddy Carr, 107
panhandle, 14, 28, 64, 83, 124, 127, 137, 139, 147, 148, 149, 185, 190, 192, 195, 197, 198, 208, 210, 215, 216, 218, 219, 222, 224, 226
pan-Indian, 147
Pan-Indian, 206
Parsons and Abbott, 90, 102, 104, 149, 150, 208
passing as white, 146
Peggy Powell, 183
Pensacola, Florida, 64, 148, 191, 192, 212, 224
Pentecostal Holiness Church, 212
People and Place: Croatan Indians in Jim Crow Georgia, 1890-1920, 140
Perdido Band of Friendly Creek Indians of Alabama and Northwest Florida, 191
Perkins, 124
Pine Arbor. See Pine Arbor tribal town
Pleasant Bluff, Indian Territory, 168
Poarch Band of Creek Indians, 15, 61, 64, 124, 128, 137, 191, 195
Polecat Springs, 92
Polly Fitzgerald, 152
Porter, 124, 143, 177, 224
powwow, 183
Powwow, 62
Principal Creek Nation, 128
race-mixing, 147, 200
Ray Kever, 144
recent African ancestry, 124
Red Stick, 92
Reuben Ezekiel Hill, 136
Revels, 139
Reverend Mr. Hill, 96, 130
Richard Wright, 227
Richmond, Virginia, 168
Robertson County, Texas, 157
Robeson County, North Carolina, 139, 177
Robin Fox, 137
Roly McIntosh, 170
Rueben Blanchard, 145, 228
Rueben Ezekiel Hill, 133
S. Pony Hill, 12, 176
Sakim, 210, 213
Sam Proctor, 18
Sam Story, 208
Samson Grayson, 155
Samuel Benton Callahan. See Samuel Callahan
Samuel Benton Callahan Jr., 166
Samuel Callahan, 164
Samuel Checote, 170
Sankey Godwin, 208
Sarah Doyle, 16, 91, 95, 129, 164
Sarah Elizabeth McAllester, 166, 173
Savannah, 120
Scotland, 113
Scott, 3, 63, 124, 139, 141, 142, 143, 145, 148, 177, 191, 193, 216, 221, 224, 225, 228
Scott Town, 63, 148
Scott’s Ferry, 141
Scott’s Ferry, Florida, 222
Seaborne Hardage, 154
Second World War. See WW II
segregation, 14, 28, 31, 63, 145, 146, 147, 194, 218, 220, 225
Self-Emigrant, 152, 156, 165
Seminole, 20, 25, 27, 57, 64, 131, 135, 148, 168, 185, 192, 196, 208, 213, 226
Seminole Tribe of Florida, 208
Session Laws” of Texas, 157
Siouan, 24, 124, 128
Sizemore, 124
Solomon “Wash” Sampson, 180
Sophia Callahan, 173
South Carolina, 16, 27, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 129, 131, 133, 142, 202
Spring Creek, 133, 178
square grounds, 60
St. Clair, 83, 87, 89, 91, 94
St. Clair’s Defeat, 83
St. Marks, 210
state recognition, 147, 191
Statesboro News, 140
Staunton, Virginia, 174
Stephen Hawkins, 121
stomp dance, 56, 183
Sulphur Springs, 151, 154, 157, 165, 167, 169, 173
Sulphur Springs Gazette, 165
Susan Hill, 133, 137
Susannah Coe, 121
Susannah Islands, 32, 59, 87, 91, 93, 106, 107, 116
Tahlequah, Oklahoma, 129
Talladega, 126
Tallahassee Florida, 129
Tama, 62, 64, 191, 210
Tecumseh, 87, 92, 93, 94
Texas, 64, 83, 84, 87, 104, 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 157, 160, 161, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 178, 185, 197
Texas Ranger, 87, 157
Texas Rangers, 157
The Mississippi Territory and the Southwestern frontier 1795-1817, 92
The Second Creek War, 93
the trail where they cried. See Trail of Tears
Theda Perdue, 110
Thomas Grayson, 155
Thomas Hart Benton, 122, 123
Thomas Hill, 133
Thomas Jefferson, 5, 118
Thomas Morris, 155
Thomas Spalding, 121
Thomas Woodward, 87, 91, 122
Tiger Mountain, Oklahoma, 185
Tom Scott, 228, 229
Trail of Tears, 85
Treaty of Cusseta, 135
Treaty of Fort Jackson, 85, 124, 134, 153, 216
Treaty of Greenville, 90
Treaty of Indian Springs, 108, 110, 125, 126
Treaty of Paris, 89
Treaty of Washington, 116, 134
tribal rolls, 204
tribal town, 33, 57, 64, 90, 106, 110, 111, 112, 114, 121, 127, 167, 185, 186, 191, 208, 209, 210, 213
Tukabatchee, 58, 93
Tullahassee Mission, 176
turtle continent. See North America
Tuscarora, 192
Tvlwv Rakko, 185
twentieth century, 17, 25, 27, 28, 30, 127, 137, 139, 142, 190, 192, 196, 199, 202, 215, 217, 225
twenty-first century, 13
Union County, 16, 97, 202
University of Minnesota, 205, 218
University of West Florida, 212
Virginia, 26, 27, 136, 159, 168, 174
Voncille Conyers, 12, 14, 31, 32, 146, 199
W.E.B. Du Bois, 217
Wadsworth, 155
Wakokiye Tallahassee Ceremonial Grounds, 17
Walter McKenzie Callahan, 166
Walton County, Florida, 94, 219
War of 1812, 116, 117
Ward’s Mill, 94, 95
Washington DC, 170
Wealaka Boarding School, 170, 173, 176
Wesley Scott, 148
Wesleyan Female Institute, 174
White Road of Peace, 118
Whitfield, 143
Wild Fork, Alabama, 222
Wiley Sampson, 180
Will Sampson, 182
WILLIAM CAPERS, 98
William McIntosh, 107, 114, 127
William Weatherford, 114, 127
Winchester Doyle, 84, 95, 149, 157, 179
Wind Clan, 112, 113, 114
Women of the American South: a Multicultural Reader, 160
Woods, 138, 139, 140, 144, 189, 190, 216, 222, 225
Woodward Reminiscences, 91
WW I Civil Enlistment, 141
WW II, 23, 192
Wynema,, 166, 173
Wyoming, 206
Creek Nation, 165
Zera Denson, 224



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